Land Conversion and Its Effect on Heavy Metal Contamination of Potential Paddy Fields in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Land conversion is often associated with heavy metal contamination, including Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, Mn6+, and Fe3+, in potential paddy fields. This contamination is caused by natural factors as well as the excessive use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, which pose significant threats to food safety, metabolism, morbidity, and even mortality. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the distribution of heavy metals across paddy fields in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The experiment was conducted from May to July 2023 using the Kriging interpolation method with 144 sample points. Potential paddy field data were collected by interpreting aerial photographs using ArcGIS 10.4. The data were then compared with real conditions in the fields, and the distribution of heavy metal contamination was determined. The heavy metals in the soil samples were analyzed at the Soil Testing Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Mulawarman University. The results showed that the area of potential paddy fields in 2002 was 3,283,781 ha, but in 2011, there was a reduction by 1,076,505 ha to 2,207,276 ha. Furthermore, in 2019, the potential paddy field area was measured at 1,713.263 ha, signifying a conversion of 494,013 ha from 2011 to 2023, amounting to 52%. Heavy metal contamination (Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Mn6+, and Fe3+) was found in North Samarinda (380,416 ha), Loa Janan Ilir (210,133 ha), Sambutan (404,682 ha), and Palaran District (188,617 ha).
Keywords: land; contamination; heavy metals; remote sensing; rice fields
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