Land Conversion and Its Effect on Heavy Metal Contamination of Potential Paddy Fields in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Nurul Puspita Palupi, Dewi Puji Rahayu, Dian Artha Wijaya


Land conversion is often associated with heavy metal contamination, including Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, Mn6+, and Fe3+, in potential paddy fields. This contamination is caused by natural factors as well as the excessive use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, which pose significant threats to food safety, metabolism, morbidity, and even mortality. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the distribution of heavy metals across paddy fields in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The experiment was conducted from May to July 2023 using the Kriging interpolation method with 144 sample points. Potential paddy field data were collected by interpreting aerial photographs using ArcGIS 10.4. The data were then compared with real conditions in the fields, and the distribution of heavy metal contamination was determined. The heavy metals in the soil samples were analyzed at the Soil Testing Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Mulawarman University. The results showed that the area of potential paddy fields in 2002 was 3,283,781 ha, but in 2011, there was a reduction by 1,076,505 ha to 2,207,276 ha. Furthermore, in 2019, the potential paddy field area was measured at 1,713.263 ha, signifying a conversion of 494,013 ha from 2011 to 2023, amounting to 52%. Heavy metal contamination (Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Mn6+, and Fe3+) was found in North Samarinda (380,416 ha), Loa Janan Ilir (210,133 ha), Sambutan (404,682 ha), and Palaran District (188,617 ha).


Keywords: land; contamination; heavy metals; remote sensing; rice fields



Download Full Text:



HUSSAIN S, JIE H, JING H, et al. Rice production under climate change: adaptations and mitigating strategies. In: FAHAD S, HASANUZZAMAN M, ALAM M, et al. (eds.) Environment, climate, plant and vegetation growth. Cham: Springer, 2020: 659–686.

SARAH M M, KAI L. Livelihood diversification in rural Laos. World Development, 2022, 83, 231–243.

CENTRAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS. Slope classification and area of Samarinda City, 2023.

YANG Z, XUNHUAN L, YANSUI L. Land use change and driving factors in rural China during the period 1995-2015. Land Use Policy, 2020, 99, 105048.

TUAN A N, JAMIE G, JONATHAN R. Economic transition without agrarian transformation: the pivotal place of smallholder rice farming in Vietnam's modernization. Journal of Rural Studies, 2020, 74, 86–95.

PATRICK B C, ERIC G, NANA Y O Y, et al. Kumasi: towards a sustainable and resilient cityscape. Cities, 2020, 97, 102567.

RADIN F, MOU L T, SITI R R, et al. Paddy, rice and food security in Malaysia: a review of climate change impacts. Cogent Social Sciences, 2020, 6(1), 1818373.

GOPAL C P, SUNIL S, TUSAR K H. Application of phenology-based algorithm and linear regression model for estimating rice cultivated areas and yield using remote sensing data in Bansloi River Basin, Eastern India. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, 2020, 19, 100367.

PRABHAT K R, SANG S L, MING Z, et al. Heavy metals in food crops: health risks, fate, mechanisms, and management. Environment International, 2019, 125, 365–385.

WAQAR A, KANG M, HUA Z, et al. Comprehensive review of the basic chemical behaviours, sources, processes, and endpoints of trace element contamination in paddy soil-rice systems in rice-growing countries. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2020, 397, 122720.

SAAHIL H, BHASKAR S, SANJAY K G, et al. A comprehensive evaluation of heavy metal contamination in foodstuff and associated human health risk: a global perspective. In: SINGH P, SINGH R, SRIVASTAVA V. (eds.) Contemporary environmental issues and challenges in era of climate change. Singapore: Springer, 2019: 33–63.

ARUN L S. Chapter 6 - Chemical fertilizers and pesticides: role in groundwater contamination. In: PRASAD M N V. (ed.) Agrochemicals detection, treatment and remediation: pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2020: 143–159.

MOHAMMAD M U, MOHAMED C M Z, JUNAIDA S Z, et al. Heavy metal accumulation in rice and aquatic plants used as human food: a general review. Toxics, 2021, 9(12), 360.

SAKSHI S, INDERPREET K, AVINASH K N. Contamination of rice crop with potentially toxic elements and associated human health risks-a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2021, 28, 12282–12299.

CHUNYAPUK K, PHITCHAN S, NUNTICHA L, et al. Heavy metals and probabilistic risk assessment via rice consumption in Thailand. Food Chemistry, 2021, 334, 127402.

SOIL RESEARCH INSTITUTE. Technical instructions for chemical analysis of soil, plants, water and fertilizer. Bogor: Agriculture Research and Development Agency, 2005.

TOVOHERY R, YASUHIRO T, TOMOHIRO N. Phosphorus management strategies to increase lowland rice yields in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. Field Crops Research, 2022, 275, 108370.

ULLAH H, AHMED S F, SANTIAGO A, et al. Tolerance mechanism and management concepts of iron toxicity in rice: a critical review. Advances in Agronomy, 2023, 17, 215–225.

MARTIELLY S S, LÍLIAN M V P S, MARCELA L B, et al. Silicon nutrition mitigates the negative impacts of iron toxicity on rice photosynthesis and grain yield. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2020, 189, 110008.

AHMED S F, ULLAH H, AUNG M Z, et al. Iron toxicity tolerance of rice genotypes in relation to growth, yield and physiochemical characters. Rice Science, 2023, 30(4), 321−334.

JEAN F B, ALAIN G, CLAUDE P, et al. Reappraisal of the central role of soil nutrient availability in nutrient management in light of recent advances in plant nutrition at crop and molecular levels. European Journal of Agronomy, 2020, 116, 126069.

PING W, QING L F, XIANG D Z, et al. Contrasting impacts of pH on the abiotic transformation of hydrochar-derived dissolved organic matter mediated by δ-MnO2. Geoderma, 2020, 378, 114627.

ZAHORANSKY T E. Manganese speciation in soil studied by Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Hannover: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität, 2022.

QIAN Z, JINGTAO H, WILLIAM H, et al. As(III) adsorption on Fe-Mn binary oxides: are Fe and Mn oxides synergistic or antagonistic for arsenic removal? Chemical Engineering Journal, 2020, 389, 124470.

ISMAIL C, PATRICK B, JOSÉ M C F, et al. Chapter 7 - Micronutrients. In: RENGEL Z, CAKMAK I, WHITE P J. (eds.) Marschner's mineral nutrition of plants. 4th ed. Academic Press, 2023: 283−385.

NOELIA S B P, DIOGO M, ALISSON N, et al. Assessment of the variation of heavy metals and pesticide residues in native and modern potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars grown at different altitudes in a typical mining region in Peru. Toxicology Reports, 2023, 11, 23−34.

GUOWEI Q, ZHAODONG N, JIANGDONG Y, et al. Soil heavy metal pollution and food safety in China: effects, sources and removing technology. Chemosphere, 2021, 267, 129205.

MARIANA D, LUCIAN V P, RALUCA M H, et al. Characterization of heavy metal toxicity in some plants and microorganisms—a preliminary approach for environmental bioremediation. New Biotechnology, 2020, 56(25), 130–139.

VINOD K, SHEVITA P, GAGAN P S S, et al. Copper bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and tolerance in plants: a comprehensive review. Chemosphere, 2021, 262, 127810.

SAIKAT M, ARKA J C, ABU M T, et al. Impact of heavy metals on the environment and human health: novel therapeutic insights to counter the toxicity. Journal of King Saud University – Science, 2022, 34(3), 101865.

WEILA L, VARENYAM A. Environmental and health impacts due to e-waste disposal in China - a review. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, 737, 139745.

JAMES F C. Chapter Nine - Copper nutrition and biochemistry and human (patho)physiology. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 2021, 96, 311–364.

OPRČKAL P, MLADENOVIČ A, ZUPANČIČ N, et al. Remediation of contaminated soil by red mud and paper ash. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2020, 256, 120440.

AURORA M L, ANTONIO D. Factors determining Zn availability and uptake by plants in soils developed under Mediterranean climate. Geoderma, 2020, 376, 114509.

ALI S, ALAADDIN V, ALI G, et al. Effect of antimonite mineralization area on heavy metal contents and geochemical fractions of agricultural soils in Gümüşhane Province, Turkey. CATENA, 2020, 184, 104255.

CÉLINE L, MATTHIEU N B, OLIVIER C, et al. Increased soil pH and dissolved organic matter after a decade of organic fertilizer application mitigates copper and zinc availability despite contamination. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, 709, 135927.

MARTA J, ANNA G, FRANCK V. Modelling assisted phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals – main opportunities, limitations, decision making and future prospects. Chemosphere, 2020, 249, 126196.

TERESA S, DOROTA K. Application of Festuca arundinacea in phytoremediation of soils contaminated with Pb, Ni, Cd and petroleum hydrocarbons. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2020, 194, 110409.

STEFANOWICZ M, PAWEŁ K, SZYMON Z, et al. Soil organic matter prevails over heavy metal pollution and vegetation as a factor shaping soil microbial communities at historical Zn–Pb mining sites. Chemosphere, 2020, 240, 124922.

BEATRICE O O, OLUSOLA O O. A review on the application of clay minerals as heavy metal adsorbents for remediation purposes. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 2020, 18, 100692.

HEROJEET R, PRADEEP K N, MADHURI S R. A new indexing approach for evaluating heavy metal contamination in groundwater. Chemosphere, 2020, 245, 125598.

KUMARI S, MISHRA A. Heavy metal contamination. In: LARRAMENDY M L, SOLONESKI S. (eds.) Soil contamination - threats and sustainable solutions. London: IntechOpen, 2021.

HUI L, ZHILIANG Y, MINGWEI D, et al. Input of Cd from agriculture phosphate fertilizer application in China during 2006–2016. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, 698, 134149.

CHANAKA N, SAMAN P, SILVA D S M, et al. Intrusion of heavy metals/metalloids into rice (Oryza sativa L.) in relation to their status in two different agricultural management systems in Sri Lanka. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 2021, 14, 100619.

OPEYEMI A O, AMOS A, MOKGADI F B, et al. Chapter 4 - Heavy metal mobility in surface water and soil, climate change, and soil interactions. In: PRASAD M N V, PIETRZYKOWSKI M. (eds.) Climate change and soil interactions. Elsevier, 2020: 51–88.

HAI L, KE L, JACKSON N, et al. Effects of pH variations caused by redox reactions and pH buffering capacity on Cd(II) speciation in paddy soils during submerging/draining alternation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2022, 234, 113409.

XIAOYING C, PENG M, SHUO S, et al. Phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils by Amaranthus Hypochondriacus L.: the effects of soil properties highlighting cation exchange capacity. Chemosphere, 2021, 283, 131067.

INGRID K K, WULF A. Soil organic matter in major pedogenic soil groups. Geoderma, 2021, 384, 114785.

HUGO C P, DAN B K, LUTZ A, et al. Effect of pH, surface charge and soil properties on the solid–solution partitioning of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a wide range of temperate soils. Chemosphere, 2023, 321, 13813.

MUHAMMAD S, MUHAMMAD U, ABDUL W, et al. Terrestrial ecosystem functioning affected by agricultural management systems: a review. Soil and Tillage Research, 2020, 196, 104464.

AVIJIT B, ASHIS K P. Chromium contamination in soil and its bioremediation: an overview. In: MALIK J A. (ed.) Advances in bioremediation and phytoremediation for sustainable soil management. Cham: Springer, 2022: 229–248.

NINGCHAO Z, QUAN Z, RUILIN W, et al. Rust triggers rapid reduction of Cr6+ by red phosphorus: the importance of electronic transfer medium of Fe3+. Chemosphere, 2022, 303, 134971.

ONYENMECHI J A, EMEKA C I. Heavy metals risks in plant foods - need to step up precautionary measures. Current Opinion in Toxicology, 2020, 22, 1–6.

PRINCE O U, UGOCHUKWU E, CHIBUZO V O. 21 - Environmental pollution: causes, effects, and the remedies. In: CHOWDHARY P, RAJ A, VERMA D, et al. (eds.) Microorganisms for sustainable environment and health. Elsevier, 2020: 419–429.

SIN J N, BING L, ZHENGYANG H, et al. Global phosphorus cycling: the impact of international commercial trading and the path towards sustainable phosphorus management. Resources Policy, 2023, 85, 103781.


  • There are currently no refbacks.