Effect of Temperature and Substitution of Jack Bean (Cannavalia Ensiformis) Flour on the Chemical Properties of Seasoned Flour

Heni Purwaningsih, Siti Nuryanti, Kristamtini, Arini Putri Hanifa, Asep Nurhikmat, Erliana Novitasari, Retno Utami Hatmi, Nugroho Siswanto, Ika Mulawati Purwanti Noviana, Setyorini Widyayanti, Arlyna Budi Pustika, Sugeng Widodo, Saidah, Putri Wullandari, Sri Satya Antarlina, Aniswatul Khamidah, Ulyatu Fitrotin, Kasma Iswari, Siti Dewi Indrasari


Jack beans are potential local legumes rich in nutrients yet limited in use. The current form of use is mostly tempeh and tofu production. Another use that seems promising is to make flour. Flour making can increase shelf life and eliminate anti-nutrients and bad smells. This study aims to determine the effect of temperature and substitution level of Jack bean flour on the chemical properties of seasoned flour. The research design was a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of 2 factors: variations in drying temperature (A) of three levels, 60oC, 70oC, and 80oC. The second factor is the variation in the substitution level of added Jack bean flour (B), which consists of three levels: 10%, 15%, and 20%. The research results show that drying temperature influences ash, protein, and reduced and total sugar contents but has no effect on fiber content. A drying temperature of 80°C gave the best result, with an ash content of 4.31%, protein content of 14.75%, fat content of 0.94%, sugar content of 12.02%, reduced sugar content of 1.23%, and crude fiber content of 10.36 %. The substitution of 20% jack bean flour showed the best result (ash content of 4.99%, protein content of 22.17%, fat content of 1.02%, total sugar content of 11.75 %, reduced sugar content of 1.32%, and crude fiber content of 10.23%).


Keywords: jack beans; sword koro; drying temperature; flour substitution; seasoned flour





Download Full Text:



INDONESIAN CENTER FOR PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION AND AGRICULTURAL LICENSING. Jack beans of “Bugel” plant variety registration letter No. 737/PVL/2018. Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia, 2018.

YUNIARSIH E T, MUSLIMIN. Development prospects of Koro Pedang beans to support food security in South Sulawesi. In: Proceedings of the National Seminar on Science and Innovation in Agricultural Technology, n.d.: 742–749.

DAS G, SHARMA A, SARKAR P K. Conventional and emerging processing techniques for the post-harvest reduction of antinutrients in edible legumes. Applied Food Research, 2022, 2(1), 100112.

KANETRO B, RIYANTO M, PUJIMULYANI D, et al. Improvement of functional properties of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) flour by germination and its relation to amino acids profile. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal, 2021, 9(3), 812–822.

PUSPITOJAT E, CAHYANTO M N, MARSONO Y, et al. Production of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides during the fermentation of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) tempe. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2019, 18(5), 464–470.

ARISE A K, MALOMO S A, IHUOMA CYNTHIA C, et al. Influence of processing methods on the antinutrients, morphology and in-vitro protein digestibility of jack bean. Food Chemistry Advances, 2022, 1, 100078.

SUSANTI I, SIREGAR N, SUPRIATNA D. The potential of sword beans (Canavila ensiformis DC) as a source of protein for food products. Indonesian Industrial Research Journal, 2013, 7(1), 1–13.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Text with EEA relevance, 2022.

KULIAHSARI D E, SARI I N I, ESTIASIH T. Cyanide detoxification methods in food: a review. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2021, 733(1), 012099.

PRASETYO, ISDIANA, SUJADI. Measure device of water content on food materials based on Internet of Things. International Journal of Information System & Technology, 2019, 3(2), 234–245.

PARK Y W. Moisture and water activity. In: NOLLET L, TOLDRA F. (eds.) Handbook of processed meats and poultry analysis. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2008: 35–67.

KINANTHI PANGESTUTI E, DARMAWAN P. Analysis of ash content of wheat flour using the gravimetric method. Journal of Chemistry and Engineering, 2021, 2(1), 16–21.

YUWANA N, LESENI N K. Validation of fat content analysis results by extractor and Soxhlet methods with varying purity of n-Hexane solvent. Journal of Laboratory Management Technology and Management (Temapela), 2021, 4(1), 18–23.

MÆHRE H K, DALHEIM L, EDVINSEN G K, et al. Protein determination—method matters. Foods, 2018, 7(1), 5.

SÁEZ-PLAZA P, NAVAS M J, WYBRANIEC S, et al. An overview of the Kjeldahl method of nitrogen determination. Part II. Sample preparation, working scale, instrumental finish, and quality control. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 2013, 43(4), 224–272.

LAM H H, NGUYEN T M T, DO T A S, et al. Quantification of total sugars and reducing sugars of dragon fruit-derived sugar-samples by UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2021, 947(1), 012041.

AFRIZA R, NILDA I. Analisis Perbedaan Kadar Gula Pereduksi Dengan Metode Lane Eynon dan Luff Schoorl Pada Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus Polyrhizus). Jurnal Temapela, 2019, 2(2), 90–96.

CVRK R, JUNUZOVIĆ H, SMAJIĆ-BEĆIĆ A, et al. Determination of crude fiber content and total sugars in correlation with the production process and storage time. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 2022, 9(3), 1–6.

OJO O G, AKINTAYO R O, FALEYE A, et al. Moisture-based shelf life estimation of ambient-stored grain flours. FUTA Journal of Research in Sciences, 2017, 13(3), 473–482.


LIANG N, CHEN X M, KITTS D D. Sugar loss attributed to non-enzymatic browning corresponds to reduce calories recovered in low-molecular-weight fraction. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 2018, 8(2), 100074.

JAYA I M A W, WISANIYASA N W, PUTRA I N K. Effect of drying temperature and time on the chemical and functional characteristics of couple bean surrounding flour (Vigna unguiculata). International Research Journal of Engineering, IT & Scientific Research, 2022, 8(4), 57–70.

OGUNDELE O D, THOMPSON S, LAWALSONSIMISOLA K, et al. Effects of drying temperature on proximate composition and functional properties of (Colocasiaesculenta) cocoyam flour. International Journal of Recent Innovation in Food Science & Nutrition, 2019, 2(1), 24–33.

RIZKY N F A N, KURNIA HARTATI F, HARIYANI N. Chemical and organoleptic quality of free-gluten dry noodles from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and modified cassava flour with different drying temperature. SAGA: Journal of Technology and Information System, 2023, 1(3), 64–71.

ASIAH N, DJAENI M. Multi-layer onion drying: study of mass and heat transfer mechanism and quality evaluation. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2015, 1699, 060005.

ABITOGUN A S, OLASEHINDE E F. Nutritional evaluation of seed and characterization of crude jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) oil. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, 1(6), 36–40.

PISKIN E, CIANCIOSI D, GULEC S, et al. Iron absorption: factors, limitations, and improvement methods. ACS Omega, 2022, 7(24), 20441–20456.

SHONTE T T, DUODU K G, DE KOCK H L. Effect of drying methods on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of underutilized stinging nettle leaves. Heliyon, 2020, 6(5), e03938.

DJAMILA S, ISWAHYONO I, BAHARIAWAN A. Physical and chemical characteristics of oyster mushrooms flour (Pleurotus ostreatus) using rotary vacuum dryer type batch. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2020, 411(1), 012007.

ASMAA A A, ZZAMAN W, TAJUL A Y. Effect of superheated steam cooking on fat and fatty acid composition of chicken sausage. International Food Research Journal, 2015, 22(2), 598–605.

SUBAGIO A, WITONO Y, WIWIK S W. Protein Albumin dan Globulin dari Beberapa Jenis Koro-koroan di Indonesia. In: Prosiding Seminar Nasional PATPI Kelompok Gizi dan Keamanan Pangan, 2022: 143–151.

MARDINA V, HARMAWAN T, FITRIANI, et al. Euthynnus affinis viscera-an alternative source for protease and lipase enzymes: characteristic and potential application as destainer agent. Biodiversitas, 2020, 21(12), 5858–5864.

AL-MHANNA N M, HUEBNER H, BUCHHOLZ R. Analysis of the sugar content in food products by using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and enzymatic methods. Foods, 2018, 7(11), 185.

NIKAWATI T, WIDANTI Y A, MUSTOFA A. Brownies bebas gluten dari tepung koro pedang (Canavalia ensiformis L) dengan substitusi tepung mocaf dan variasi lama pemanggangan. Jurnal Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, 2019, 12(2), 99–106.

ERWINDA M D, SUSANTO W H. Effect of pH of sugarcane juice (Saccharum officinarum) and concentration of added lime on the quality of brown sugar. Journal of Food and Agroindustry, 2014, 2(3), 54–64.

Wang J, Zhang J, Wang S, et al. Isolation and extraction of monomers from insoluble dietary fiber. Foods, 2023, 12(13), 2473.

SANTOSA B. Metode Elisa Untuk Pengukuran Protein Metallothionein pada Daun Padi Ir Bagendit. Semarang: Penerbit Unimus Press, 2020.


  • There are currently no refbacks.